Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is inflammatory arthritis. It causes joint pain and swelling and starts before the age of 16 and is long-term. An immune system malfunction causes the majority of JIA cases. While the exact cause of this auto-immune disorder is unknown, the malfunction causes a child's immune system to attack the linings of their joints, causing inflammation and, if left untreated, joint damage.
This type of juvenile arthritis can affect one or more joints and sometimes affect the eyes. To be classified as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, symptoms must last for more than 6 months.
Types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis
There are six types of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.
- Systemic JIA: This type affects the entire body, including joints, skin, and internal organs.
- Oligo joint JIA: This type affects less than 5 joints. It occurs in about half of all children with arthritis.
- Articulated JIA: This type affects more than 5 joints. The protein known as the rheumatoid factor may or may not be present.
- Juvenile psoriatic arthritis This type affects joints and occurs in psoriasis. Therefore, it is called juvenile psoriatic arthritis.
- Enthesitis-related JIA: In this type, the bone contacts the tendons and ligaments.
- Undifferentiated arthritis: This type includes symptoms that contain more than one subtype or do not belong to any of the other subtypes. The more joints affected, the more severe the disease is usually.
Common symptoms of juvenile arthritis
Certain types of juvenile arthritis have unique symptoms, and there are some common symptoms found in all types.
Joint pain and loss of mobility The most common symptom of JIA is joint pain. The joints may swell and lose mobility. This can lead to loss of dexterity. If the JIA is left untreated, children may reduce physical activity.
Fatigue Joint pain from arthritis can interfere with sleep. Chronic inflammation can also cause persistent fatigue.
Loss of appetite Loss of appetite, either due to fatigue and pain or other symptoms, is common in young children with JIA.
Uneven growth Persistent arthritis at a young age can damage joints. Severe juvenile arthritis can also slow overall growth. However, when the inflammation is controlled, growth issues typically improve.
Eye problem Certain types of JIA, such as oligoarthritis, can cause inflammatory eye problems. Certain types of JIA, such as oligoarthritis, can cause inflammatory eye problems. Common eye problems related to JIA include blurred vision and dry "grainy" eyes. These symptoms can cause long-term damage to the eyesight and the eyes themselves and should be treated immediately.
Fever and rash Inflammation alone can cause skin rashes and fever, but various forms of juvenile arthritis can also cause certain skin rashes. Children living with systemic JIA may experience a high fever and a light pink rash on their skin. The rash most commonly appears on these body parts: chest, abdomen, back, hands, and feet. Psoriasis, a red, itchy rash, can also present with psoriatic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
If left uncontrolled and untreated, juvenile idiopathic arthritis can cause severe symptoms such as:
- Difficult to chew or brush teeth.
- Digestive problems
- Inflammation of the cervical spine
- Bone and cartilage damage
- Lung disease
- Damage to the heart
- Sight problems
- Late puberty
Causes Juvenile idiopathic arthritis happens while the body`s immune machine assaults its cells and tissues. It's now no longer regarded why this happens; however, each heredity and surroundings appear to play a role.
Complications Several severe headaches can result from juvenile idiopathic arthritis. But maintaining a cautious watch on your kid’s situation and searching for suitable clinical interest can significantly lessen the chance of those headaches: Eye problems, Eye irritation, and Growth problems.
Best Orthopedic Clinic in Abu Dhabi Help your child manage his/her symptoms by sticking to the treatment plan. This includes getting enough sleep. Encourage exercise and physical therapy and find ways to make it fun. Adam and Eve Specialized medical center has the best orthopedics who will give the treatment plan and support children with juvenile arthritis. Consult our orthopedics for the best care.